- Christopher Chabris, Daniel Simons The Invisible Gorilla And Other Ways Our Intuitions Deceive Us
- The invisible gorilla strikes again: sustained inattentional blindness in expert observers.
- The Invisible Gorilla - And Other Ways Our Intuition Deceives Us (Electronic book text, ePub ed)
- 1. Drug delivery systems that changed the world
Christopher Chabris, Daniel Simons The Invisible Gorilla- And Other Ways Our Intuitions Deceive durchcomppumalchi.ga MBNancy M. Cavender and. DOWNLOAD The Invisible Gorilla: And Other Ways Our Intuitions Deceive Us By Christopher Chabris [PDF EBOOK EPUB site] DOWNLOAD The Invisible. Reading this book will make you less sure of yourself-and thats a good thing. In The Invisible Gorilla, Christopher Chabris and Daniel Simons, creators of one of.
|Language:||English, Japanese, Hindi|
|Genre:||Fiction & Literature|
|ePub File Size:||24.75 MB|
|PDF File Size:||9.32 MB|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Sign up for free]|
Free download or read online The Invisible Gorilla: And Other Ways Our Intuitions Deceive Us pdf. (ePUB) book. The first edition of this novel was published in. READ PDF The Invisible Gorilla: And Other Ways Our Intuitions Deceive Us By Christopher Chabris PDF eBook #epub. Access eBook The Invisible Gorilla: And Other Ways Our Intuitions Deceive Us By Christopher Chabris [PDF EBOOK EPUB site].
If any work of social science could be a page-turner, this is it. This book will delight all who seek depth and insight into the wonder and complexities of cognition. Like its authors, the book is both funny and smart, filled with insights into the everyday illusions that we all walk around with.
No matter what your job is or what you do in life, you will learn something from this book. Chabris and Simons provide terrific tips on how to cast off our illusions and get things right. Read it to find out why weathermen might make good money managers, and what Homer Simpson can teach you about thinking clearly.
The authors offer a fascinating set of examples that show how poorly we understand the limitations of our own minds in business, medicine, law enforcement, journalism--and everyday life. Reading this book won't cure you of all these limitations, but it will at least help you recognize and compensate for them.
In that league is the now-famous "gorilla" experiment by Christopher Chabris and Daniel Simons, demonstrating how blind we all are to objects clearly in our midst, and especially how unreliable eyewitness testimony is in any criminal investigation or any other walk of life. Clever, illuminating, by turns shocking and delightful, this book, if you take it to heart, will change a lot of your bad habits and could even save your life.
The current drug delivery field is faced with an invisible gorilla syndrome, i. Overcoming this syndrome requires a new way of thinking, questioning the status quo.
Advances in drug delivery technologies occur by an evolutionary process, and thus, the more trials and errors lead to faster advances. The drug delivery area needs to nurture the environment where vastly different ideas can be tested, and all data, positive or negative, need to be exchanged freely as they have equal importance. Keywords: drug delivery, future, nanoparticle, invisible gorilla 1.
Drug delivery systems that changed the world Many things in the human history have revolutionized the world. The drugs of historical significance include penicillin by Alexander Fleming, chlorpromazineblocking dopamine receptors for treating schizophrenia, zidovudine also known as azidothymidine inhibiting reverse transcriptase for treating acquired immunodeficiency syndrome[ 2 ], and omeprazole blocking the gastric hydrogen potassium ATPase proton pump [ 3 ].
Christopher Chabris, Daniel Simons The Invisible Gorilla And Other Ways Our Intuitions Deceive Us
The world may be quite a different place without these discoveries. The Spansule technology was used to develop hour drug release formulations for the first time.
Each Spansule capsule contains hundreds of micropellets which are coated with a water-soluble wax, poly ethylene oxide or PEO, at different thicknesses to provide slow release of a drug for 12 hours. Commercial success of this new controlled-release formulation prompted the drug delivery field to develop other controlled release technologies. These include dissolution-controlled, diffusion-controlled, osmosis-controlled, and ion-exchange-controlled formulations.
The invisible gorilla strikes again: sustained inattentional blindness in expert observers.
Controlled release formulations have also been beneficial to the pharmaceutical industry by making drugs more effective with fewer side effects.
The progress made during the 30 years following the introduction of the Spansule technology, i. The drug delivery technologies developed in the subsequent 30 years, i. Currently, we are in the third generation 3G of drug delivery technology starting from around Drug delivery scientists will continue to change the world through their research and technologies leading to innovative formulations benefiting patients.
Candid discussion on the progress of drug delivery technology To have a clear view on the progress of DDS, a historical perspective is necessary[ 5 , 6 ].
The Invisible Gorilla - And Other Ways Our Intuition Deceives Us (Electronic book text, ePub ed)
The simplest version of the DDS history is that oral and transdermal DDSs developed during the 1G period have been very productive in producing clinicalformulations, while advanced DDSs, mostly studied during the 2G period, were not translated into clinical applications as much. The main difficulty of the 2G technologies was, in part, due to dealing with biological barriers that cannot be easily overcome by altering the physicochemical properties of DDSs. Understanding the reasons behind it will help us find the solutions for further, and hopefully rapid, progress in the future.
To achieve the goal of introducing clinically effective DDSs, the scientists in this area need to find out the reasons for the difficulties, and thus, the solutions to overcome them if possible.
Understanding the reasons, however, requires more than search of scientific reasons. It also requires reasons based on human behavior.
Here it is important to clarify why drug delivery scientists do their research. Many do their research, because they want to do basic research which may not result in near-term clinical applications. The lack of clinical translations of the 2G advanced DDS is due to inadequate understanding of the complex behavior of the body with too optimistic assumptions that are not supported by facts.
It is time for the drug delivery science community to review the field critically. This article discusses the reasons for slow progress that the field has been experiencing, and what each drug delivery scientist can do about it.
The views described in this article are personal views which may be very different from many in the drug delivery field.
However, exchanging different views and ideas is the first stepnecessary to overcome the current stalemate in drug delivery technologies. Current complacency in drug delivery technology The current technology that dominates the drug delivery field is the nanotechnology-based targeted drug delivery, and it serves as a good example illustrating the difficulties facing the field. The nanoparticle technology was hailed as a new, disruptive technology.
The current small animal experiments using nanoparticles and their data interpretation rely on conventional wisdom that nanoparticle formulations are effective in targeted drug delivery to the target tumor site due to the enhanced permeability and retention EPR effect. This assumption was accepted without any critical evaluation, especially in human patients. The hard data cumulated over the last few decadesare not conclusive even in mice[ 10 - 13 ].
The assumption based on intuition should be accompanied by hard data supporting it [ 14 ]. The data from small animal models have been misinterpreted or over-interpreted.
If the results inmouse studies are not reproduced in humans, the small animal model needs to be changed to something else that represents the human condition better. Otherwise, the research done using the mouse models will become irrelevant to our ultimate goal of developing clinical formulations.
In a larger scale, the drug delivery field as a whole may become irrelevant in pharmaceutical industry without drug delivery systems for clinical applications.
Here, drug delivery scientists need to have a growth mindset that welcomes challenges and tries to stretch existing abilities through failures, instead of a fixed mindset striving for success and avoiding failure at all costs[ 15 ], and developthe willingness to listen to different points of views. The drug delivery science community need frank discussion on the lack of translation from mouse to human. There may be nanoparticle systems that may appear to be working in xenograft mouse models, but there is really no point in dwelling on such systems when the data are not translated to clinical applications.
Drug delivery scientists need to listen to others who do not share the same views. Such open mindedness is essential for accurate assessment of the current status, and thus, hopefully, for breaking the current complacency and finding solutions to the problems at hand. Diversification of drug delivery technologies Analysis of the drug delivery technologies developed for the last 60 years indicates that drug delivery research follows a trend which prevails in a given time period.
Since the dawn of the nanotechnology era in , the majority of the drug delivery researchers have focused on nanoparticle-based targeted drug delivery to tumors. The nanoparticle-based research on tumor-targeted delivery has been sweeping the world for much more than a decade. The prevailing idea has been that a number of shortcomings of conventional small molecule drugs can be overcome by multiplexed nanoparticle formulations through tailoring the chemistry and identity of variable nanoparticle constituents [ 16 ].
1. Drug delivery systems that changed the world
Numerous articles have been published on the topic over the years. Those research articles have certainly enhanced our understanding on nanoparticle formulations.
But there is a lingering question: Why are all those seemingly very promising nanoparticle systems failing in clinical trials? Many clinical trials of tumor-targeted drug delivery using nanoparticleshave failed[ 11 , 13 , 17 ].
According to Gene Therapy Clinical Trials Worldwide provided by the Journal of Gene Medicine [ 18 ], there have been more 2, gene therapy clinical studies as of September Partners MySchool Discovery.
The assumption based on intuition should be accompanied by hard data supporting it [ 14 ]. Is this product missing categories? There may be nanoparticle systems that may appear to be working in xenograft mouse models, but there is really no point in dwelling on such systems when the data are not translated to clinical applications.
Share your images. The prepared paclitaxel nanocrystals contained both 3H-paclitaxel and FPI fluorophore for quantitative measurement of paclitaxel distribution and visual observation, respectively, in different organs. Description Details Customer Reviews If a gorilla walked out into the middle of a basketball pitch, you'd notice it.