“PDF Techniques for WCAG ” is a W3C Working Group Note . When the Link tag has an /Alt entry, screen readers ignore the value of any visible Commonly, front matter is numbered with lowercase Roman numerals. Responsive Web Design with Macaw. L. Roman Contreras. v CONTENTS .. Every tag has a class name. By default that will be auto-generated. 3. If a user. This is a Roman slave collar, one of about 45 surviving examples .. of this tag has moved from the Bargello to the Museo Archeologico tag.

Pdf Roman Taghas

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How can we set up MS Word to work with PDF-eXPLODE? The entire tag must have a standard Windows font applied to it, such as Arial or Times New Roman. If each Tag has to send a selection of contiguous pages (aka. This is without doubt the best-known 'fact' about Ancient Rome, just as Julius of such criticism, the 'mobile field army' tag has stuck, so that it is worth making. This Web page lists PDF Techniques from Techniques for WCAG In this example, the text "WCAG2" (within the LBody tag) has been enclosed in a Span The image below shows the Word document with lowercase Roman numeral .

Of the more than 40 examples known today, five were first recorded in the late 16th century, an enduring split between text and eight more in the 17th, seven in the 18th including object the Zoninus collar , and three more by the mid 19th. Inscribed objects were dis- the material culture of Roman slavery even now. Associated finds that were Zoninus collar is a case in point. One result suit and polymath.

Dimensions are provided for the first Even more striking is that we have no contextual time, and the author comments that the collar seems information or associated finds for any of the 24 in- too small for a human neck and was more likely used scribed collars and tags found before the late 19th on an animal.

No slave collars. As far as anyone can tell, it is ancient, but, in ano until the collection became the property of the new the absence of findspot information, questions about Italian nation in the late 19th century. The Kircheriano authenticity necessarily arise, and one or more of the was subsequently broken up and redistributed into surviving collars may be an early modern fake.

The Etruscan artifacts went to the Museo logical approach to the material, since it could be un- Nazionale Etrusco in the Villa Giulia; the ethnographic derstood only in relation to similar objects.

All these material was transferred to the Museo Nazionale Pre- practices transformed Roman slave collars into artifi- istorico Etnografico, and the Roman antiquities, in- cluding the Zoninus collar, were moved to the Museo Nazionale Romano in the Baths of Diocletian. Today, 18 A classic assessment of antiquarian scholarship in relation to modern history is Momigliano I re- Roman art, see Marlowe In recent museum catalogues, the collar is treated of amphora types, tabulated at the end of the volume, as valuable material and textual evidence for Roman is still in use today.

In fact, the later 19th century marks a watershed Equally important for subsequent research was the for the study of Roman slave collars, as for Roman late 19th-century focus on these slave collars as part history and archaeology more broadly. A new philo- of the history of early Christianity. The key figure is logical accuracy and professionalism characterized the Giovanni Battista de Rossi, a founding figure in the scholarship.

Scholars moved away from antiquarian archaeological study of early Christianity in Rome classification and toward historical analysis: More collars were discov- article on odd Roman slave collars represents ered—10 in the later 19th century alone, followed by their first synthetic study: He, too, presented the collars as dematerialized edict of tolerance for Christianity in C.

Chris- texts, with a commentary in Latin. He, too, organized tian terms on some collars acolyte, archdeacon fur- his material using antiquarian typological classifica- ther suggest an institutional structure for Christianity.

On the weights, and seals. He compiled ogy in the later 19th century, see Marchand An accessible more collars than anyone else had to date and included overview of the history of CIL is Schmidt And, his archaeo- collar found on the Caelian Hill in Rome during construction logical interests represented something new.

She considers the carved text in relation to its ward on the Zoninus collar was a gold coin that became espe- physical placement, its visibility there, the rituals occurring in cially important from Constantine onward.

Another collar tag, that space, and the social relationships and interactions atested now lost, was made from a worn-down nummus of Constantine to in the text.

CIL 15[2] Moreover, punitive facial tattooing continued through the Late Antique period. In these cases, the collars seem to have been intended to mark owner- fig. Drawing by G. Current location unknown. The tag was inscribed on both sides, presumably for reuse. This side a single explanation to fit all instances. The first was vir clarissimus, to Bonosus de Rossi , pl.

Several of the Additional clues point to dates in the fourth and fifth inscriptions include the words servus sum followed centuries: The second idea was that these collars tury figs. For references for these three practice of tattooing convicted criminals on the face collars, see infra n.

Allard 31 On the status markers, see Hillner Plan of the excavated Temple of Apollo at Bulla Regia. An inscribed lead collar was found in at location X together with human bones after Merlin , pl.

There is no men- tion of what the people treated in this way might have thought about the relative humanity of a facial tattoo vs. Scholarship since the late 19th century has dem- onstrated a more complex relationship between these slave collars and early Christianity. Overall, the Chris- tian references and symbols on these collars seem pri- marily to reflect the broader institutional and historical situation in the fourth and fifth centuries.

Not all the collars include Christian words or visual symbols. Lead collar, ht. Merlin , 10, fig. Harper has forcefully refuted the older tesserarius, a beneficiarius, a centurio and men working idea that slavery changed or declined dramatically in in commerce a linarius, or linen man; a manceps, per- the Late Antique; the real changes came after the long haps an auctioneer; an antiquario, or antiquary; a me- fourth century.

Several owners were administrative Antique aspects listed above are thus in balance with officials in Rome, working for the grain prefect or the longer-term continuities. The inclusion of high-status titles such considered only as texts.

Clodius Hermogenianus Olybrius, urban study of Roman slave collars offers a rich com- prefect in , , and C. This may be ages at all. By contrast, when material or visual aspects for reasons of limited space, because the masters were of Roman slave collars are foregrounded, it tends to of low rank and perhaps slaves themselves, or because be for the purposes of illustration only.

For example, full legal names were not necessary in this context. The late 19th- and nomenon of the fourth and fifth centuries in particular 20th-century emergence of specialized disciplines for but as evidence for Roman slavery more broadly. This the study of the past formalized the separation of text and object.

History rejected the antiquarian emphasis on collection and classification, prioritizing analysis 42 Information about the owner is far more common in these and explanation instead. Disciplinary training and inscriptions than information about the slave; a few slaves are practice focused on ancient texts rather than material named, but only the prostitute from Bulla Regia see ig.

No female owners are atested in these Harper Wiedemann , , no. Wiedemann drew here on 44 Jones et al. ILS — Wiedemann tledge , —44, — Harper , 3—32 discusses chapters are devoted to slavery and archaeology, including dis- scholarly developments and in particular the way diferent un- cussions of the challenges and possibilities in doing this work derlying economic models produce diferent views of slavery.

George ; Morris Roman slave collars are also men- 47 Exemplary of this approach is the work of Bradley e. The situation is review that archaeological evidence and then evaluate now rapidly evolving.

In the later 20th century, collar was permanent. At Bulla Regia, a person wear- archaeologists rejected the focus on single artifacts and ing a lead collar died—or the corpse was dumped—in typologies in favor of analyzing complete assemblages, abandonment layers over the pavement of the court- and sophisticated approaches were developed to study yard of the Temple of Apollo see figs.

How- collar is one of only two that identify a female slave: Tene quia fugivi de Bulla have paid little attention to slavery. Hold me be- separation of text and object has effectively located cause I have fled from Bulla Regia. Adultera was ei- the study of slavery within the historical and textual ther her assigned slave name or an adjective, which domain alone.

However, exploiting this and in Brindisi in , an iron collar was found still potential will depend on recognizing this deep and attached around the neck of a skeleton. Not least, the long-standing focus on the inscriptions means 53 On the archaeological context of this ind, see Merlin , that the evidence of findspots has never been consid- 11, igs. Since the mid 19th century, at least 19 more col- dug or that the body was otherwise carefully deposited here; lars and tags have been found.

Many were discovered Merlin notes only the remains of a skeleton lost in the soil: To my knowl- edge, no formal osteological analysis was done on the bones to substantiate this assessment of her sex and roughly 40 years of age.

Morris tion. On this collar, see also Merlin et al. Current work on the Roman econ- this corpus is that of Petronia on a band collar in Berlin: Staat- omy employs a wide range of archaeological evidence, as, e. In the study of ancient slavery, the Mainz school 55 Frascati: I am grateful to Paulete Pelletier-Hornby for and visual Heinen Fiorelli , 49 current whereabouts un- work at Seteinestre.

For more recent work on the ar- known. Interestingly, possible to know whether it was inscribed. It may have been an current work is oten taking the form of collaborations between ordinary neck shackle of the kind used to chain slaves homp- ancient historians and material culture specialists. See, e. Bronze collar, max. During construction ne fugiam was found in recent years on the southern work in Rome in , a band collar was found in an slopes of Monte Sambucaro in Lazio, just a few cen- underground channel at the intersection of the Via Na- timeters below the surface, folded up on itself.

Marcheti , 21 context , 23 collar pl.

Vatican Museums: On the probable indspots in the catacombs, see Morey ; C. Lega, pers. On the indspot, see Paribeni , croscope and lively discussion of the collars.

I Di Stefano Manzella , — A44; hur- Zambardi Poinssot ; hurmond , —71, no. At Lam- 57 Via Nazionale: I thank Mafalda Cipol- army camp Leschi —; hurmond , , no. Botom of the Several tags show evidence of having been ripped away Tiber: A third see punched perhaps for a subsequent display. Pani [] cate- ig. See evidence for successive phases of use. I hope to explore this evi- supra n.

Drawing of a brass collar, lgth. Current loca- tion unknown. A third contextual pattern gives texture to the urban a tag found near Grottaferrata bears a return address character of these collars. More probably, these also found in cities: Bulla Regia, Thelepte, and Lam- slaves were punished by being moved from the city to baesis.

That is, these collars were a phenomenon of harder work in the countryside. The band collar for the study of Roman slavery? On the one hand, it found on a skeleton buried in Frascati asks the reader may be tempting to abandon these collars altogether, to return its wearer to a location on the Aventine see given the difficulties of the evidence discussed above. The bronze tag found near Tolentino also asks peared.

They survive only voca me in Abentino in domu Potiti v iri c larissimi ad Decianas [sc. Hold me and return me because I have led from region 12, at the Scriboniolum Baths in Rome. Below the inscription are an alpha and omega on either side of a ribboned crown. A de- Praiecti oicialis praefecti annonis, foras muru m exivi; tene tailed drawing is in de Rossi , pl.

Hold me because I have led; lead me the slave named on the tag from Grotaferrata see supra n. Pani , n. On the other hand, aban- lar shape with rounded corners, with a long, ribbon- doning the archaeological study of these collars means like extension left at the top. Fortunately, the better-documented col- to create a built-in attachment hoop, or bail, that was lars can provide a basis for reconsidering collars with then riveted shut see fig.

This approach also wire doubled back on itself and twisted along its entire has drawbacks: Alternatively, the tially undervalued. Specifically, I combine two The neck ring has a circumference of about The first is to reintegrate the material, vi- In modern U.

Other perspectives on the same object: Human interactions uninscribed neck shackles used throughout the Roman and experiences thus become visible in the operations period. Below, I attempt this kind of dual rein- fairly tight fitting and could not be lifted off over the tegration for the Zoninus collar. Their intended purpose was ap- the interests of the slave owner parently something else. Almost all Roman slave col- most discussed in the existing scholarship, although lars ask viewers to stop the wearer from running away.

A closer look suggests probably done in a metalworking shop.

PDF Techniques for WCAG 2.0

Incising the inscription that not all collars served exactly the same purpose; required a diferent set of skills and may have been done once the collar and tag were assembled. My source for these measurements is www. Medi- 67 Most Roman slave collars were made of bronze, with single um sizes 8 and 10 is A spelled, reboca me. Throughout the Roman era, slave collar made any future escape attempt more difficult. The name of the owner, on stopping fugitive slaves, these collars are material the return address, and so on deterred escape by spell- expressions of a concern that runs through the ancient ing out what would happen—that is, how any future textual sources.

However, they did not physically re- attempt would fail. How were tor.

Roman law required that sellers declare whether they supposed to work? In to remove, but, unlike a tattoo, it could be taken off if case the slave tried to run, the collar helped the owner the owner wanted to sell the slave at a later date and retrieve the lost property. Many include a return ad- conceal this history. A fifth possibility: That is, most be easily located. For example, one Minervinus be- collars ask the reader to stop the runaway, but three longed to the cohors XII urbana 12th urban cohort tags warn observers not to interfere with that slave.

Owners seeking a runaway slave had one shelter this slave belonging to someone else. In short, these collars were one element 73 For a broader discussion of the goals of Roman punish- among many in a large and complex system of enforce- ments, including retribution and humiliation, correction, pre- ment and retrieval. On the A second possibility and the one most commonly punishments of slaves, see Bellen , 17—31; Bradley , — On creating a climate of fear within slavery as part of accepted in the scholarship is that these collars were this structure of domination, see Harper , 19— If so, the goals 74 Bradley and Cartledge , Its indspot is unknown; it was irst mentioned in the early 18th century CIL 15[2] [with earlier bibliog- raphy]; Bellen , 28; hurmond , —73, no.

Fuhrmann to the garden of Q. Clodius Hermogenianus Olybrius supra n. I hope to consider these cases more fully elsewhere.

On fugitivarii in particular, see Cas- Bellen , 28; Pani , In other words, the inscribed slave col- derscored themes of ownership and control. There was of the slave. In this context, Christian symbols, such for someone who is not present, and demand that the as the palm on the Zoninus inscription, a Chi-Rho, or reader accomplish something for that absent person. Joshel considers it in relation to slaves in kind of work the slave was permited to do, had to be worn on Roman houses and villas.

However, they share slave collars continued a long-standing role for religion in help- with the Roman collars an emphasis on the visible marking and ing Roman owners retrieve runaway slaves.

In many other slave spatial control of enslaved people in an urban context. On the systems, the slave master is assigned control over symbolic as Charleston slave badges, see Singleton ; Greene et al. Gustafson discusses Late Antique E. On the interactive practices and modern theories of what it means to mark the dynamics of graiti, see Levin-Richardson ; Milnor , body permanently. Within this overarching theme, the on. Most of these environments probably held a num- collars could serve several purposes: At the same time, there were dangers in so also reminded viewers that this slave was considered a visibly inscribing a slave.

Any such collar indicated that flight risk. The collar may accordingly have provoked the slave was a flight risk who perhaps had already got- closer supervision and harsher treatment of the slave ten away from the owner once. The collar asserted the who wore it e. For such viewers, the details ongoing threat to that control. Finally, all these obser- of the inscription could be ignored, made a pretext for vations depend on an outside audience: In any case, this were made to be seen.

Understanding them more fully was a repeated, habitual viewing.

Fellow slaves the perspective of viewers and readers could see and understand the physical experience of Who saw the Zoninus and similar collars, and how wearing a metal collar, including any associated pain, did people see them? The slave owner might try to they were better placed within the household hierarchy elicit a certain response, but there was no guarantee or if they thought their own best tactics were to appear that viewers and readers would provide it.

Alternatively, sence of any direct evidence for viewers and readers, other slaves might admire the runaway for trying to modern theories of audience response are helpful and escape and even seek his or her advice for an attempt underlie the following discussion. Recep- tion aesthetics offers a valuable complementary ap- proach: Contextual information exists for only a few of the they construct audience response.

See also the discussion in Holub On apply- On familial and other bonds among slaves, see Joshel ; ing reception theory to visual images and things seen, see Kemp Bradley and Cartledge , — For the fourth century , ; Holly ; Trimble The collar provided authoritative information for better and for worse.

Even if these imposed on that slave. Still, at the very least property.

Pdf roman taghas

On the one hand, the inscriptions typically they participated in broader attitudes and practices declare the slave to be a flight risk, which might sug- concerning fugitive slaves and can be analyzed ac- gest that collared slaves were kept strictly within the cordingly.

This flight situation implies a very different confines of the owner-designated working environ- audience and sequence of viewing and reading.

Here, ment. On the other hand, these are not the kind of it is useful to reconstruct a progressive approach, ask- neck shackles that chained the slave to a particular ing what could be seen at what point, and with what place.

And, if the audience were only internal, there effects. It is probable, then, that at least Christian buildings, imagery, and symbols. A viewer might also be their required work in the immediate neighborhood able to see that the collar was inscribed, although not or along known routes. The collars borrowed nated in an urban setting.

The return addresses in the from the appearance of public inscriptions, employing city of Rome testify to the face-to-face and localized capital letters and sometimes interpuncts.

The letters nature of urban neighborhoods there. The cell you changed should change color to show the new span, as shown in the following image. The following image shows the correction being made to the last header cell, with the corrected header cells to its left. This example is shown in operation in the working example of repairing table structure Word file and working example of repairing table structure PDF file. Configure the screen reader to not use heuristics to read table header cells.

The intent of this technique is to create lists of related items using list elements appropriate for their purposes. When markup is used that visually formats items as a list but does not indicate the list relationship, users may have difficulty navigating the information. An example of such visual formatting is simply using line-breaks to separate list items.

Some assistive technologies allow users to navigate from list to list or item to item. If the lists are not correctly formatted with list tags, these users will have difficulty understanding the list content.

The easiest way to create lists in PDF content is to format them properly using list markup in the authoring tool, for example, Microsoft Word or OpenOffice. However, if you do not have access to the source file and authoring tool, you can use Acrobat Pro's TouchUp Reading Order tool and the Tags panel.

Lbl - the list item label. Contains distinguishing information such as a item number or bullet character. LBody - the list item body. Contains list item content, or in the case of a nested list, it may contain additional List tag trees. On the Home ribbon, use the lists tools to create or repair lists in Word documents. This is the easiest way to ensure that lists are formatted correctly when they are converted to PDF. In the image below, the numbered and bullet lists were created using the list tools.

The third list did not use the list tool see the ribbon and the list will not be tagged as list elements when converted to PDF. Use the Bullets and Numbering tool to create or repair lists in OpenOffice. The third list did not use the list tool see the toolbar and the list will not be tagged as list elements when converted to PDF.

This example is shown in operation in the working example of adding lists to OpenOffice Writer documents. Inspect the lists in the document to determine which, if any, are not formatted properly.

In the following image, the third list is formatted as text. The list items are separated only by line-breaks. Assistive technology may not be able to render the list intelligibly for users.

This example is shown in operation in the working example of ensuring lists are properly formatted in Acrobat Pro. The following code fragment illustrates code that is typical marking up a list hierarchy in PDF documents. It uses the simple numbered list in the previous examples. Read the PDF document with a screen reader, listening to hear that list is read correctly when reading the content line-by-line.

Use a tool that is capable of showing lists to open the PDF document and view the list to check that it is correctly structured. Inspect the tag tree to verify that the list is structured according to the PDF specification. Use a tool that exposes the document through the accessibility API and verify that the list is correctly structured.

PDF Techniques for Web Content Accessibility Guidelines | Antenna House

The objective of this technique is to notify the user when user input to a field that requires a specific, required format e. If the required format is not used, an alert dialog describes the nature of the error in text.

User agents, such as Adobe LiveCycle can provide automatic alerts as described in the examples below. Once the user dismisses the alert dialog, it may be helpful if the script positions the keyboard focus on the field where the error occurred, although some users may expect the focus to remain on the last control focused prior to the alert appearing.

For example, if the alert announces an error in a phone number format, positioning the focus on the phone number field when the alert is dismissed can be regarded as helpful and expected. If multiple input errors occur on the page, an alternative approach to error notification should be implemented.

Ensuring that users are aware an error has occurred, can determine what is wrong, and can correct it are key to software usability and accessibility. Meeting this objective helps ensure that all users can complete for-based transactions with ease and confidence. Many fields -- telephone number, postal code, date -- must have data entered in a specific format or pattern. In the Format tab, select the Format Category in this case, Date.

The Date Options appear. When a user types a recognized date format, it is converted automatically to the specified format. If the date format or value is not recognized, an error alert appears and provides further information, as shown in the image below.

This example is shown in operation in the working example of Required Fields in Acrobat. Because this is a date field the Patterns-Date Field dialog appears. Select the pattern or format you want users to enter. Then click OK. In the Object palette, use the Validation Pattern Message box to type a warning message. Be sure to include the required pattern.

This message appears when a user tries to submit the form using an invalid date format. The following JavaScript code illustrates the use of a script to validate form fields, in this case, a date field.

To add this script to the form field, open the Text Field Properties dialog, as shown in Example 1, and select Edit in the Validate tab:. JavaScript for Acrobat. For each form field that requires specific input, verify that validation information and instructions are provided by applying the following:.

Check that the format or value that is required is indicated in the form control's label. Use an erroneous format or value and move off the field: The objective of this technique is to ensure that interactive form controls in PDF documents allow keyboard operation.

Form controls are implemented in PDF documents either as described in Section Form controls allow users to interact with a PDF document by filling in information or indicating choices, which can then be submitted for processing.

Users who rely on keyboard access must be able to recognize and understand the form fields, make selections, and provide input to complete the forms, and submit the form, just as sighted users can. Interactive form controls can be provided for forms created by converting a scanned paper form to tagged PDF or by creating a form in an authoring application such as Microsoft Word or Open Office and converting it to tagged PDF.

However, documents created by authoring applications that provide form design features might not fully retain their fillable form fields on conversion to PDF. Complex forms in particular may not have properly converted form fields and labels when tagged in conversion.

Using Adobe Acrobat Pro with forms in converted documents, you can ensure that form fields are keyboard accessible and usable by:. If you have a form in a tagged PDF document created by scanning a paper form or using an authoring tool to generate tagged PDF , you can use Adobe Acrobat Pro to make the form elements keyboard accessible in the same page locations as the static form. The following image shows the resulting form fields after the Run Form Recognition tool is run.

This example is shown in operation in the working example of Interactive Controls in Acrobat. Open the Add New Field menu on the upper left, and select a form field to add. The image below shows the menu of fields. This example is shown in operation in the working example of Interactive Controls in LiveCycle Designer.

To edit fields, select the context menu for the field and select Properties The properties menu for that form field lets you modify it, as shown in the following image. The tooltip is not keyboard accessible but will be screen-reader accessible: Providing name, role, value information for form fields in PDF documents. You can use Adobe LiveCycle Designer to create new forms.

In addition to invoking this standalone tool from the Windows Start menu, you can invoke it in Adobe Acrobat Pro:. The New Form Assistant creates a blank form. Use the Object Library in the right pane to select form controls. You can also use LiveCycle Designer to create forms based on commonly used forms templates. Invoke the Template Assistant wizard from the New pulldown: Select Forms and then select an appropriate type of form.

Then, you can personalize the form by swapping out placeholder text, graphics, form fields, and properties with custom objects that you provide or define. The following code fragment illustrates code that is typical for a simple text field such as shown in Examples 1 and 2. For each form control, verify that it is properly implemented by tabbing to each form control and checking that it can be activated or that its value can be changed from the keyboard.

The entire document is also available as a single HTML file. W3C liability , trademark and document use rules apply. Techniques for WCAG 2. PDF Technology Notes Introduction The Portable Document Format PDF is a file format for representing documents in a manner independent of the application software, hardware, and operating system used to create them, as well as of the output device on which they are to be displayed or printed.

It is intended for use by tools that perform the following types of operations: Simple extraction of text and graphics for pasting into other applications. Processing text for such purposes as searching, indexing, and spell-checking.

Making content accessible to people who rely on assistive technology.

PDF Techniques for Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0

PDF File Production and Accessibility PDF files may be produced either directly by application programs or indirectly by conversion from other file formats or imaging models. There are two principal indirect methods: Microsoft Office 10 - a suite of desktop office applications that creates tagged PDF. API Inspection Tools aDesigner - a disability simulator from the Eclipse Foundation that helps designers ensure that content is accessible and usable by visually impaired users.

Accessibility applications such as screen readers can interface with Acrobat or Adobe Reader in two ways: Recent versions of Acrobat and Reader have enhanced the support for accessibility interfaces: On the TouchUp Properties dialog, select the Tag tab. On the Tag panel, type the text alternative in the Alternate Text text box.

Right-click on the image and choose Edit Alternate Text. The Alternate Text dialog will be displayed. Type the text alternative in the Alternate Text text box. Access the context menu for the image and choose Picture Resources are for information purposes only, no endorsement implied.

Providing short text alternative for non-text content that serves the same purpose and presents the same information as the non-text content. Using a PDF editor, check that a text alternative is displayed for each image. Expected Results Check 1 is true for each image in the document which needs a text equivalent. Create a table of contents at the beginning of the Word document. Create a table of contents at the beginning of the OpenOffice. The image below shows the Bookmarks options menu. The next image shows the selection of links in the document for bookmarking.

Providing a Table of Contents. Procedure Check that the Bookmarks panel displays bookmarks. Check that the bookmarks link to the correct sections in the document. Expected Results Check 1 and Check 2 are true. Common tab-order errors include: Form fields missing from the tagged content. If needed, select a tab order option: Option Description Use Row Order Tabs from the upper left field, moving first left to right and then down, one table row at a time. Use Column Order Tabs from the upper left field, moving first from top to bottom and then across from left to right, one table column at a time.

Use Document Structure For tagged documents, moves in the tag order specified by the authoring application. To correct the reading order in Example 5, use the Tags panel, and either Drag-and-drop the H1 tag to precede the required-field text tagged H2 , or Cut-and-paste the H2 tag to follow the H1 tag.

Ordering the content in a meaningful sequence G Placing the interactive elements in an order that follows sequences and relationships within the content G Ensuring keyboard control for all functionality. Procedure Verify that the content is in the correct reading order by one of the following: Verify that the tab order is correct for focusable content by one of the following: Use the tab key to traverse the focus order in the document.

Expected Results 1 and Check 2 are true. Procedure For an image that is purely decorative, use one of the following to verify that it is marked as an artifact: Using a PDF editor, make sure the decorative image is marked as an artifact.

Reflow the document and make sure the decorative image does not appear on the page. Expected Results 1 is true.

Labels for required form controls It is also important that users are aware that an error may occur. Access the context menu of the field and select the Properties dialog. Access the context menu of the form control, select Palettes, and select Object. Select "User entered - Required" from the Type pulldown. The image below shows the Adobe LiveCycle Object palette with the required selection.

Providing text descriptions to identify required fields that were not completed H Indicating required form controls using label or legend SCR Providing client-side validation and alert PDF Indicating when user input falls outside the required format or values in PDF forms. Procedure For each form field that is required, verify that validation information and instructions are provided by applying the following: Check that the required status is indicated in the form control's label.

Expected Results 1, 2, and 3 are true. Within PDF documents, a table uses the following structure types for table elements: A table element Table. Access the table header row's context menu and select Table Properties Select the Row tab. Check "Repeat as header at the top of each page" as shown in the following image.

Access the table's context menu and select Table Select the Table Format tab. To check that a converted document with tables has correct table tagging: In the View menu, select Navigation Panel, then select Tags. To change these to TH tags: Select on the first data cell and select Properties Repeat for all the table header cells in the first table row. Using table markup to present tabular information PDF Procedure For each table, confirm one of the following: To ensure that actual text is stored in the document, perform the following steps: Separating information and structure from presentation to enable different presentations.

Procedure For each page converted to text using OCR, ensure that the resulting PDF has been converted correctly, using one of the following ways: Providing definitions for abbreviations via an E entry for a structure element Applicability Tagged PDF documents containing abbreviations or acronyms.

The following image illustrates this technique: Providing the expansion or explanation of an abbreviation G Linking to definitions G Providing a glossary G Providing a function to search an online dictionary G Providing the first use of an abbreviation immediately before or after the expanded form. Expected Results Check 1 is true. Heading markup can be used: Left click and drag a selection box over the content you want to tag.

Using the Order and Tags panels You can also add or change headings as follows: Bring up the Order panel. Access the context menu for the text to be changed or added as a heading.

Select the correct heading tag for the text. Export to PDF as follows: This is a first level heading. Hello world: Organizing a page using headings. Procedure For all PDF content that is divided into separate sections, use one of the following to verify that headings are tagged correctly: Using a PDF editor, make sure the headings are tagged correctly.

Placement rules The table below lists the placement rules governing where Adobe LiveCycle positions labels by default. If this is not possible, LiveCycle will attempt to place it immediately above the control.

Checkbox Default placement for the label is to the right of the check box. Radio button group Default placement for the label for each individual radio button is to the right of the button. Create a visible caption for the radio button group by creating static text and placing it to the left of or above the group. See Labeling radio buttons below. Combo box Default placement for the label is to the left of the drop-down list.

If this is not possible, LiveCycle will attempt to place it immediately above the control.. Button LiveCycle automatically places the label on the button; it does not have to be positioned manually. Ensure that the button's purpose is properly described in the label text. Specifying accessible label text using the accessibility palette In LiveCycle Designer, create or import a form. Instead, create the individual elements for the page section and then group them together.

Design in Outline Mode Most of your design work in Macaw should be done in Outline view, with the occasional toggle back to the Normal view.

Having these empty or hidden elements can afect your layout making it diicult to position other elements or making the design wonky. So whenever possible you should use Copy Visual Properties for similar elements. For instance, if you have a series of headlines that are all visually the same, instead of individually styling each one, use Copy Visual Properties or do what I do just create a copy of it, which also transfers the styles.

Unfortunately, this breaks the naming best practices. I will almost always choose semantics because I can ix the redundant problem post-Macaw. Use Auto Size Whenever Possible By default, any element you draw on the canvas will be assigned a px height. The general rule developers use is to create breaking points when the design So if the design starts getting wonky at px, then set the breaking point there. That said: I usually like to keep my breaking points clustered together and rounded to the nearest point within px.

This will produce width and minimum-height dimensions on the paragraph tag you just created. In most cases you want the paragraph tag to simply be auto height with no minimum. Good luck getting this design responsive! It makes creating breakpoints much easier. If you have to use a px-sized element, be sure to resize it at the breakpoint where it starts to get wonky as you shrink the browser window.

For those that are unfamiliar with nudge and pudge: Work from the Top to the Bottom When designing your page in Macaw, you want to start at its top and work your way down. You want to do this because Macaw positions its elements in relation to other elements. So, if you start at the middle, you can cause issues with positioning elements above it. Also, remember, the browser reads the code from the top down, so you want to make sure that the hierarchy of elements is in the same order that the browser will read them.

This means that each element you put on the canvas will have to be individually styled - even if that style is the same between elements same color, same font-size, etc. As you can imagine, this creates a bunch of redundant code in the CSS, which is a pain to maintain. Macaw gets around this issue with their Global Styles tool. With this tool, you can create styles that you can apply to multiple elements without causing the redundant code.

It should be used whenever two elements share the same styles. Once you apply a global style to multiple elements, you can still style each element individually afterwards. In this case, the global style provides the baseline. By default, Macaw will assign sequentially numbered class names to elements So, the easiest irst step to production code is to get into the habit of renaming any element as you place them on the canvas.

Our goal is to not have any of these random names in our production code. This can be overridden by the user if you put in a different tag type. Every tag has a class name. By default that will be auto-generated. So, what does all this mean? And how does it apply to creating production code? This means using class names that clearly describe the function of the element, with appropriate semantic HTML tags.

If a developer looks at your generated CSS and HTML, they should be able to easily understand your intent without needing to load the page in the browser. Get in the habit of naming every element you place on the canvas.

Every element should be named with this pattern: For example: Wherever possible, use HTML semantic tags like header, footer, nav, article, etc.

Never use the same class name on more than one element. Never use only the tag name without a class name. With a CSS ile like this: This is beautiful, semantic code that any developer can read and understand without needing to load the project in Macaw or ire up a browser. Brings a tear to the eye Applying the same style in different breakpoint: Place each list item below the previous one to create a list of items in descending order.

You can rename the extension from. This is great if you need to pull out an asset like an image or font. If you need a button somewhere else, just create a link and style it into the shape of a button. Select more than one border Use shift to select mulitple border sides at once. This prevents the component from accidentally inheriting page speciic positioning issues. After you create the component and save it, the component will appear in your library ready to go. Macaw solves some of these headaches.

Place the elements approximately where you want them. For instance, place a text element on top of box element. Click the Align Vertical Centers button in the Inspector tab. Make sure the elements ARE grouped together and both have ixed px heights. Use the Direct Selection tool to select the child element 3. With the child element selected, click on the Absolute Positioning button. Click the Align Middle button. Positioning Using Padding when parent element is auto height The child can be auto or ixed px height for this to work, however the parent must be set to auto.

Both elements should be grouped together. Make sure the elements ARE grouped together and the parent has an auto height.

The child element should have a top margin of 0 3. Select the parent element. The child element should stay in the vertical center. Create a single line of text with the Text tool.

Give the text element a height of auto. Adjust the Line-Height button to the height you want. Exact Center Positioning child and parent ixed or luid height and width This is probably one of the most common CSS tricks to get an element exactly in the center of another element, even in a responsive design where the parent element shrinks.

Neither should be set to auto. The child element should have margins of 0.In January , PDF 1. Cartledge, eds. The Implied Reader: Lastly, I turn to the collared slaves.

Squire, M. An overview 8; hurmond , A closer look suggests probably done in a metalworking shop.

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