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Isolated and facing a bleak prospect of invasion from the west if the war continued, Russia sued for peace in March France and Britain welcomed this development; the Treaty of Paris , signed on 30 March , ended the war.
It forbade Russia from basing warships in the Black Sea. The Ottoman vassal states of Wallachia and Moldavia became independent. Christians there were granted a degree of official equality, the Orthodox Church regained control of the Christian churches in dispute; the Crimean War was one of the first conflicts in which the military used modern technologies such as explosive naval shells and telegraphs.
The war was one of the first to be documented extensively in written photographs; as the legend of the " Charge of the Light Brigade " demonstrates, the war became an iconic symbol of logistical and tactical failures and mismanagement.
The reaction in the UK was a demand for professionalisation, most famously achieved by Florence Nightingale , who gained worldwide attention for pioneering modern nursing while treating the wounded; the Crimean War proved to be the moment of truth for Nikolaevan Russia. The humiliation forced Russia's educated elites to identify the Empire's problems and to recognize the need for fundamental transformations aimed at modernizing and restoring Russia's position in the ranks of European powers.
Historians have studied the role of the Crimean War as a catalyst for the reforms of Russia's social institutions: serfdom , local self-government and military service. More scholars have turned their attention to the impact of the Crimean War on the development of Russian nationalistic discourse; as the Ottoman Empire weakened during the 19th century, Russia stood poised to take advantage by expanding south.
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In the s, the British and the French, who were allied with the Ottoman Empire, were determined not to allow this to happen. Taylor argues that the war resulted not from aggression but from the interacting fears of the major players: In some sense the Crimean war was predestined and had deep-seated causes.
Nicholas needed a subservient Turkey for the sake of Russian security. Mutual fear, not mutual aggression, caused the Crimean war. He saw action in the Crimean War as an officer in the British Army. However, he made his military reputation in China , where he was placed in command of the " Ever Victorious Army ," a force of Chinese soldiers led by European officers.
In the early s, Gordon and his men were instrumental in putting down the Taiping Rebellion defeating much larger forces.
For these accomplishments, he was given the nickname "Chinese Gordon" and honours from both the Emperor of China and the British, he entered the service of the Khedive of Egypt in and became the Governor-General of the Sudan , where he did much to suppress revolts and the local slave trade.
Exhausted, he resigned and returned to Europe in A serious revolt broke out in the Sudan , led by a Muslim religious leader and self-proclaimed Mahdi , Muhammad Ahmad. In early Gordon had been sent to Khartoum with instructions to secure the evacuation of loyal soldiers and civilians and to depart with them. In defiance of those instructions, after evacuating about 2, civilians he retained a smaller group of soldiers and non-military men.
In the buildup to battle, the two leaders corresponded, each attempting to convert the other to his faith, but neither would accede. Besieged by the Mahdi's forces, Gordon organised a citywide defence lasting a year that gained him the admiration of the British public, but not of the government, which had wished him not to become entrenched.
Only when public pressure to act had become irresistible did the government, with reluctance, send a relief force, it arrived two days after the city had fallen and Gordon had been killed. Gordon was born in Woolwich, London , a son of Major General Henry William Gordon and Elizabeth Gordon ; the men of the Gordon family had served as officers in the British Army for four generations, as a son of a general, Gordon was brought up to be the fifth generation.
All of Gordon's brothers became Army officers. Gordon grew up in England , Ireland and the Ionian Islands as his father was moved from post to post. In , Gordon was devastated when his favourite sibling, his sister Emily died of tuberculosis , writing years "humanly speaking it changed my life, it was never the same since. As a teenager and an army cadet, Gordon was known for his high spirits, a combative streak and tendency to disregard authority and the rules if he felt them to be stupid or unjust, a personality trait that held back his graduation by two years when teachers decided to punish him for flouting the rules; as a cadet, Gordon showed exceptional talents at map-making and in designing fortifications, which led to his choosing to become a Royal Engineer or a " sapper ".
He was commissioned a second lieutenant in the Royal Engineers on 23 June , completing his training at Chatham, he was promoted to full lieutenant on 17 February The sappers were an elite who performed the "reconnaissance work, led storming parties, demolished obstacles in assaults, carried out rear-guard actions in retreats and other hazardous tasks. A man medium of stature, with striking blue eyes, the charismatic Gordon had the ability to inspire men to follow him anywhere.
Gordon was first assigned to construct fortifications at Milford Haven, Wales. During his time in Milford Haven, Gordon was befriended by a young couple and Anne Drew, who introduced him to evangelical Protestantism. Gordon was impressed with Philippians where St. Paul wrote: "For to me, to live is Christ, to die is gain", a passage he underlined in his Bible and quoted, he attended diverse congregations, including Roman Catholic , Baptist and Methodist.
Gordon, who once said to a Roman Catholic priest that "the church is like the British Army , one army but many regiments", never allied himself to any church nor became a member of one.
When the Crimean War began, Gordon was assigned to his boyhood home of Corfu , but after several letters to the War Office , he was sent to the Crimea instead.
He was sent to the Russian Empire , arriving at Balaklava in January , he first displayed his death wish as he wrote at the time that he had gone "to the Crimea, without having a hand in it, to be killed". In the 19th century Russia was Britain's archenemy , with many people in both nations seeing an ideological conflict between Russian autocracy and British democracy, Gordon was anxious to fight in the Crimea, he was put to work in the Siege of Sevastopol and took part in the assault of the Redan from 18 June to 8 September.
As a sapper, Gordon had to map out the Russian fortifications at the city-fortress of Sevastopol designed by the famous Russian military engineer Eduard Totleben , a dangerous job that put him under enemy fire, led him to being wounded for the first time when a Russian sniper put a bullet into him. Gordon spent much time in "the Quarries", as the British called their section of the trenches facing Sevastopol.
It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process.
The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, ; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. They might, being without a leader, have been reckless, and been besieged by an overwhelming force of vicious dwarfs. My following consisted of sixty-six men, a few women and children, who, more active than the others, had assisted the thin fluid with the berries of the phrynium and the amomum, and such fungi as could be discovered in damp places, and therefore were possessed of some little strength, though the poor fellows were terribly emaciated.
Fifty-one men, besides boys and women, were so prostrate with debility and disease that they would be hopelessly gone if within a few hours food did not arrive. My white comrade and thirteen men were assured of sufficient for ten days to protract the struggle against a painful death.
We who were bound for the search possessed nothing. We could feed on berries until we could arrive at a plantation. As we travelled that afternoon we passed several dead bodies in various stages of decay, and the sight of doomed, dying and dead produced on my nerves such a feeling of weakness that I was well-nigh overcome. Every soul in that camp was paralysed with sadness and suffering. Despair had made them all dumb. Not a sound was heard to disturb the deathly brooding. It was a mercy to me that I heard no murmur of reproach, no sign of rebuke.
I felt the horror of silence of the forest and the night intensely.
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Sleep was impossible. My thoughts dwelt on these recurring disobediences which caused so much misery and anxiety. Their utter thoughtless and oblivious natures and continual breach of promises kill more men, and cause more anxiety, than the poison of the darts or barbs and points of the arrows.
If I meet them I will—" But before the resolve was uttered flashed to my memory the dead men on the road, the doomed in the camp, and the starving with me, and the thought that those men were lost in the remorseless woods beyond recovery, or surrounded by savages without hope of escape, then do you wonder that the natural hardness of the heart was softened, and that I again consigned my case to Him who could alone assist us. The next morning within half-an-hour of the start we met the foragers, safe, sound, robust, loaded, bearing four tons of plantains.
You can imagine what cries of joy these wild children of nature uttered, you can imagine how they flung themselves upon the fruit, and sited the fires to roast and boil and bake, and how, after they were all filled, we rode back to the camp to rejoice those unfortunates with Mr. As I mentally review the many grim episodes and reflect on the marvellously narrow escapes from utter destruction to which we have been subjected during our various journeys to and fro through that immense and gloomy extent of primeval woods, I feel utterly unable to attribute our salvation to any other cause than to a gracious Providence who for some purpose of His own preserved us.
All the armies and armaments of Europe could not have lent us any aid in the dire extremity in which we found ourselves in that camp between the Dui and Ihuru; an army of explorers could not have traced our course to the scene of the last struggle had we fallen, for deep, deep as utter oblivion had we been surely buried under the humus of the trackless wilds.
It is in this humble and grateful spirit that I commence this record of the progress of the Expedition from its inception by you to the date when at our feet the Indian Ocean burst into view, pure and blue as Heaven when we might justly exclaim "It is ended!
I write to you and to your friends, and for those who desire more light on Darkest Africa, and for those who can feel an interest in what concerns humanity. My creed has been, is, and will remain so, I hope, to act for the best, think the right thought, and speak the right word, as well as a good motive will permit.
When a mission is entrusted to me and my conscience approves it as noble and right, and I give my promise to exert my best powers to fulfil this according to the letter and spirit, I carry with me a Law, that I am compelled to obey. If any associated with me prove to me by their manner and action that this Law is equally incumbent on them, then I recognize my brothers. Therefore it is with unqualified delight that I acknowledge the priceless services of my friends Stairs, Jephson, Nelson and Parke, four men whose devotion to their several duties were as perfect as human nature is capable of.
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As a man's epitaph can only be justly written when he lies in his sepulchre, so I rarely attempted to tell them during the journey, how much I valued the ready and prompt obedience of Stairs, that earnestness for work that distinguished Jephson, the brave soldierly qualities of Nelson, and the gentle, tender devotion paid by our Doctor to his ailing patients; but now that the long wanderings are over, and they have bided and laboured ungrudgingly throughout the long period, I feel that my words are poor indeed when I need them to express in full my lasting obligations to each of them.
Concerning those who have fallen, or who were turned back by illness or accident, I will admit, with pleasure, that while in my company every one seemed most capable of fulfilling the highest expectations formed of them. I never had a doubt of any one of them until Mr.
Bonny poured into my ears the dismal story of the rear column. While I possess positive proofs that both the Major and Mr. Jameson were inspired by loyalty, and burning with desire throughout those long months at Yamdownloada, I have endeavoured to ascertain why they did not proceed as instructed by letter, or why Messrs. Ward, Troup and Bonny did not suggest that to move little by little was preferable to rotting at Yamdownloada, which they were clearly in danger of doing, like the dead followers.
To this simple question there is no answer. The eight visits to Stanley Falls and Kasongo amount in the aggregate to 1, miles; their journals, log books, letters teem with proofs that every element of success was in and with them.
I cannot understand why the five officers, having means for moving, confessedly burning with the desire to move, and animated with the highest feelings, did not move on along our tract as directed; or, why, believing I was alive, the officers sent my personal baggage down river and reduced their chief to a state of destitution; or, why they should send European tinned provisions and two dozen bottles of Madeira down river, when there were thirty-three men sick and hungry in camp; or, why Mr.
Bonny should allow his own rations to be sent down while he was present; or, why Mr. Ward should be sent down river with a despatch, and an order be sent after him to prevent his return to the Expedition. These are a few of the problems which puzzle me, and to which I have been unable to obtain satisfactory solutions. Had any other person informed me that such things had taken place I should have doubted them, but I take my information solely from Major Barttelot's official despatch See Appendix.
The telegram which Mr.
Ward conveyed to the sea requests instructions from the London Committee, but the gentlemen in London reply, "We refer you to Mr. Stanley's letter of instructions. After the discovery of Mr. Bonny at Banalya, I had frequent occasions to remark to him that his goodwill and devotion were equal to that shown by the others, and as for bravery, I think he has as much as the bravest. With his performance of any appointed work I never had cause for dissatisfaction, and as he so admirably conducted himself with such perfect and respectful obedience while with us from Banalya to the Indian Sea, the more the mystery of Yamdownloada life is deepened, for with 2, such soldiers as Bonny under a competent leader, the entire Soudan could be subjugated, pacified and governed.
It must thoroughly be understood, however, while reflecting upon the misfortunes of the rear-column, that it is my firm belief that had it been the lot of Barttelot and Jameson to have been in the place of, say Stairs and Jephson, and to have accompanied us in the advance, they would equally have distinguished themselves; for such a group of young gentlemen as Barttelot, Jameson, Stairs, Nelson, Jephson, and Parke, at all times, night or day, so eager for and rather loving work, is rare.
If I were to try and form another African State, such tireless, brave natures would be simply invaluable. The misfortunes of the rear-column were due to the resolutions of August 17th to stay and wait for me, and to the meeting with the Arabs the next day. What is herein related about Emin Pasha need not, I hope, be taken as derogating in the slightest from the high conception of our ideal. If the reality differs somewhat from it no fault can be attributed to him. While his people were faithful he was equal to the ideal; when his soldiers revolted his usefulness as a Governor ceased, just as the cabinet-maker with tools may turn out finished wood-work, but without them can do nothing.
If the Pasha was not of such gigantic stature as we supposed him to be, he certainly cannot be held responsible for that, any more than he can be held accountable for his unmilitary appearance. If the Pasha was able to maintain his province for five years, he cannot in justice be held answerable for the wave of insanity and the epidemic of turbulence which converted his hitherto loyal soldiers into rebels. You will find two special periods in this narrative wherein the Pasha is described with strictest impartiality to each, but his misfortunes never cause us to lose our respect for him, though we may not agree with that excess of sentiment which distinguished him, for objects so unworthy as sworn rebels.
As an administrator he displayed the finest qualities; he was just, tender, loyal and merciful, and affectionate to the natives who placed themselves under his protection, and no higher and better proof of the esteem with which he was regarded by his soldiery can be desired than that he owed his life to the reputation for justice and mildness which he had won. In short, every hour saved from sleep was devoted before his final deposition to some useful purpose conducive to increase of knowledge, improvement of humanity, and gain to civilization.
You must remember all these things, and by no means lose sight of them, even while you read our impressions of him.
I am compelled to believe that Mr. Mounteney Jephson wrote the kindliest report of the events that transpired during the arrest and imprisonment of the Pasha and himself, out of pure affection, sympathy, and fellow-feeling for his friend.
Indeed the kindness and sympathy he entertains for the Pasha are so evident that I playfully accuse him of being either a Mahdist, Arabist, or Eminist, as one would naturally feel indignant at the prospect of leading a slave's life at Khartoum. The letters of Mr. Jephson, after being shown, were endorsed, as will be seen by Emin Pasha. Later observations proved the truth of those made by Mr.
Jephson when he said, "Sentiment is the Pasha's worst enemy; nothing keeps Emin here but Emin himself. While we may naturally regret that Emin Pasha did not possess that influence over his troops which would have commanded their perfect obedience, confidence and trust, and made them pliable to the laws and customs of civilization, and compelled them to respect natives as fellow-subjects, to be guardians of peace and protectors of property, without which there can be no civilization, many will think that as the Governor was unable to do this, that it is as well that events took the turn they did.
The natives of Africa cannot be taught that there are blessings in civilization if they are permitted to be oppressed and to be treated as unworthy of the treatment due to human beings, to be despoiled and enslaved at will by a licentious soldiery. The habit of regarding the aborigines as nothing better than pagan abid or slaves, dates from Ibrahim Pasha, and must be utterly suppressed before any semblance of civilization can be seen outside the military settlements.
When every grain of corn, and every fowl, goat, sheep and cow which is necessary for the troops is paid for in sterling money or its equivalent in necessary goods, then civilization will become irresistible in its influence, and the Gospel even may be introduced; but without impartial justice both are impossible, certainly never when preceded and accompanied by spoliation, which I fear was too general a custom in the Soudan.
Those who have some regard for righteous justice may find some comfort in the reflection that until civilization in its true and real form be introduced into Equatoria, the aborigines shall now have some peace and rest, and that whatever aspects its semblance bare, excepting a few orange and lime trees, can be replaced within a month, under higher, better, and more enduring auspices.
Accept the profession of mine, which has been pledged long ago to you wholly and entirely. Henry M. To Sir William Mackinnon, Bart. Mackay, Mr.
Allen, and Dr. Felkin, relating to his Province—Mr. Holmwood's and Mr. Mackinnon and Mr. Only a Carlyle in his maturest period, as when he drew in lurid colours the agonies of the terrible French Revolution, can do justice to the long catalogue of disasters which has followed the connection of England with Egypt.
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It is a theme so dreadful throughout, that Englishmen shrink from touching it. Those who have written upon any matters relating to these horrors confine themselves to bare historical record. No one can read through these without shuddering at the dangers England and Englishmen have incurred during this pitiful period of mismanagement.
After the Egyptian campaign there is only one bright gleam of sunshine throughout months of oppressive darkness, and that shone over the immortals of Abu-Klea and Gubat, when that small body of heroic Englishmen struggled shoulder to shoulder on the sands of the fatal desert, and won a glory equal to that which the Light Brigade were urged to gain at Balaclava. While the presence of ganglion cells in DIG could suggest some biological overlap with conventional ganglioglioma, the latter lacks the very young patient age, massive size, and rich desmoplastic investiture of DIG.
We also tested retrospectively five additional cases in our files to add to the numbers of tested cases in the literature. Eligible patients had been initially seen, received neurosurgical resection of tumor, or been seen in clinical follow-up between, with closure date of study in January Clinical outcome was obtained from the neurooncology database, supplemented by the medical records. Clinical progression was determined by the neurooncologist on the study, which was also responsible for patient follow-up and care, and included evaluation of neuroimaging features.
Extent of resection was determined by postoperative neuroimaging. All cases were stained with Harris hematoxylin and eosin and Gomori reticulin.The origins of Ravenna are uncertain; the first settlement is variously attributed to the Etruscans and the Umbrians.
It is a theme so dreadful throughout, that Englishmen shrink from touching it. Wieringa, R. A precis of these is as follows:— 1. Felkin on the same date, December 31, Our scheme comprised two rounds of semi-structured questionnaires, each followed by an aggregation of responses and anonymous feedback from the experts.