The term "soil" can have different meanings, depending upon the field in which it is considered. To a geologist, it is the material in the relative thin zone of the. NPTEL provides E-learning through online Web and Video courses various streams. NPTEL; Civil Engineering; Soil Mechanics (Web). Modules / Lectures. Module Name, Download, Description, Download Size. Introduction, Soil Moisture Content, Experiment, 24 kb. Introduction, Soil Specific Gravity, Experiment.
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NPTEL provides E-learning through online Web and Video courses various NPTEL · Civil Engineering; NOC:Soil Mechanics/Geotechnical Engineering I. Soil Mechanics. Dr. P. K. Just how deep into the soil should the building be placed? techniques to contain or drain the soft foundation foundation soil? 5 H h. The following set of lecture notes cover every major topic discussed in class. Part II-1 Soil Composition, Index Properties and Soil Classification (PDF - MB).
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Bulu Pradhan 34 Geo-environmental Engineering Dr. Sreedeep 35 Ground Water Hydrology Dr. Rajib K. Groundwater behind the wall that is not dissipated by a drainage system causes an additional horizontal hydraulic pressure on the wall. Gravity walls[ edit ] Gravity walls depend on the size and weight of the wall mass to resist pressures from behind.
Gravity walls will often have a slight setback, or batter, to improve wall stability. For short, landscaping walls, gravity walls made from dry-stacked mortarless stone or segmental concrete units masonry units are commonly used.
Earlier in the 20th century, taller retaining walls were often gravity walls made from large masses of concrete or stone. Today, taller retaining walls are increasingly built as composite gravity walls such as: geosynthetic or steel-reinforced backfill soil with precast facing; gabions stacked steel wire baskets filled with rocks , crib walls cells built up log cabin style from precast concrete or timber and filled with soil or free draining gravel or soil-nailed walls soil reinforced in place with steel and concrete rods.
For reinforced-soil gravity walls, the soil reinforcement is placed in horizontal layers throughout the height of the wall. Commonly, the soil reinforcement is geogrid, a high-strength polymer mesh, that provide tensile strength to hold soil together.
The wall face is often of precast, segmental concrete units that can tolerate some differential movement. The reinforced soil's mass, along with the facing, becomes the gravity wall. The reinforced mass must be built large enough to retain the pressures from the soil behind it.
Gravity walls usually must be a minimum of 30 to 40 percent as deep thick as the height of the wall, and may have to be larger if there is a slope or surcharge on the wall.
Cantilever walls[ edit ] Prior to the introduction of modern reinforced-soil gravity walls, cantilevered walls were the most common type of taller retaining wall.
Cantilevered walls are made from a relatively thin stem of steel-reinforced, cast-in-place concrete or mortared masonry often in the shape of an inverted T. These walls cantilever loads like a beam to a large, structural footing; converting horizontal pressures from behind the wall to vertical pressures on the ground below. Sometimes cantilevered walls are buttressed on the front, or include a counterfort on the back, to improve their stability against high loads.
Buttresses are short wing walls at right angles to the main trend of the wall. These walls require rigid concrete footings below seasonal frost depth. These books are used by students of top universities, institutes and colleges.
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